Age-related macular degeneration, or AMD, is a condition that affects the center of the retina, called the macula. The macula is the part of the eye responsible for our most acute vision, which we use when reading, driving, and performing other activities that require fine, sharp, or straight-ahead vision.
There are two different types of AMD:
Dry macular degeneration: Small yellow deposits, known as drusen, accumulate under the macula. Eventually, these deposits are disruptive to vision cells, causing them to slowly break down. With less of the macula working, this causes a gradual loss of central vision as time goes on.
This is the most common form of AMD, affecting approximately 90% of people who have the disease.
Wet macular degeneration: New blood vessels start to grow in areas of the macula where they shouldn’t be. This causes rapid damage to the macula that can lead to the loss of central vision in a short period of time.
Although this type of AMD affects only about 10% of people with the disease, it is responsible for 90% of severe vision loss associated with AMD.
Risk factors for AMD
While the causes of AMD may be unknown; age, lifestyle and nutrition appear to play a role. Things like:
- exposure to sunlight
- high blood pressure
Symptoms of AMD
In the early stages, AMD goes largely unnoticed, and can only be detected through a dilated eye exam, which may reveal drusen accumulation. However, as AMD progresses, drusen impair the transportation of vital nutrients to the macula and damages the light-sensitive cells of the retina causing noticeable symptoms, including:
- Blurred vision
- A dark or empty area in the central area of vision
- Distortion of straight lines
Management of AMD
Since peripheral vision is not affected, many people with dry AMD continue in their normal lifestyles with the aid of low-vision optical devices, such as magnifiers.
Wet AMD is treated with injected medications and/or laser surgery by sealing off the leaking blood vessels. These are usually brief and painless outpatient procedures that slow and sometimes even reverse, the progression of the degeneration. A small, permanently dark spot is left where the laser makes contact, however.
There are currently no treatments for dry AMD. The use of eye vitamins as studied in the AREDS and AREDS2 studies have been shown to reduce the risk of progression in patients with moderate to advanced AMD.
Bausch + Lomb offers PreserVision AREDS 2 Formula which contains the exact same levels of all six nutrients based on the latest clinical evidence supported by the National Eye Institute (NEI) AREDS2 study.